From the production process that butter is classified into the following types:
– Unsalted butter / unsalted butter – unsalted butter, including two types:
+ Sweet butter: As unfermented, “sweet” butter is popular in the UK and US thanks to its natural flavor and mild milky aroma.
+ Sour butter / cultured butter / cultured butter: It is a type of butter cultured with the lactic acid bacteria family, has a yogurt-like aroma and similar composition to sweet butter. Depending on taste, many people prefer sour butter to sweet butter, especially in yeast-based cakes such as bread because of the more delicious taste. This variety is popular in Europe and Oceania (Australia, New Zealand), so sour butter is often used in Vietnam because most avocados are imported from those places.
Essentially, sweet and sour butter are interchangeable in cakes and recipes. Depending on the taste and requirements in the recipe that can be used.
Salted butter is the name for salted butter. Both “sweet” and sourdough butters are savory and not salty.
Salted butter is suitable for making fried dishes, stir-fries, noodles in general, creating a moderate salty taste and reducing the feeling of satiety. Salted butter has the advantage of being preserved longer than other types due to the higher osmotic pressure inside the environment, limiting the growth of microorganisms.
Unsalted butter is suitable for cake recipes that require butter, if that is not the case and is often served with bread. However, salted butter can still be used to bake cakes that use soluble butter such as bread, croissant crust, cake, brownies… then no need to add salt.
– Dry butter/dry butter/beurre sec: has a high percentage of fat in butter (by mass), usually 82% or more for US standards and 84% or more for European standards. Dry butter is mainly used to roll multi-layered cakes such as Mille-feuille, puff pastry, croissant… The water in butter causes gluten fibers to form between the layers of dough. The cake does not expand after baking because of the pulling fibers. Dried butter is also used a lot to make bread because of its low water content, the cake will not be pale and the crust does not stick with butter. In addition to breads and layered cakes, dry butter can be used in place of regular butter in cake recipes.
In addition to basic butters, there are several other dairy products that are similar to butter:
Anhydrous milk fat (anhydrous butter – anhydrous milk fat): is the type containing up to 99.8% fat and not more than 0.2% water and other ingredients. The percentage of fat in anhydrous butter is very high, often used by bakeries to make layered cakes similar to dry butter. The melting point of anhydrous butter is up to 42 degrees, so the cake can be made in any weather condition (not above that temperature) because the butter does not melt because of the high fat content. When using anhydrous butter in cakes and recipes, it is often necessary to reduce the amount used by 15-20% because butter is usually water.
Cream butter: contains about 60% fat, more water, so it has a darker yellow color than butter. Cream butter is softer than butter and has a richer, richer taste, and is used a lot to accompany dishes or use as a swiss butter cream. Similar to butter, cream butter also has two types, sweet cream butter, cultured cream butter and salty taste of those two types.
Like cow’s milk, there are also butter from buffalo milk, goat’s milk, chamois milk… For people who are allergic to cow’s milk, the main reason is because the body cannot absorb the protein components in milk. . Fatty acids in chamois milk and goat’s milk are smaller in size than cow’s milk and the composition is also different, so it can be used for people with allergies, asthma and osteoarthritis… Most cows are raised industrially, because So cow’s milk may contain some hormones and additives that are toxic to susceptible people, while goats and chamois are often raised on a small scale, the proteins in these two types of milk are also more easily absorbed because similar in composition to breast milk. Cakes made from the butter of these two animals are also appreciated, because of their small size, the fat is distributed more evenly in the cake (especially in bread). They act as emulsifiers in industrial cakes, making them soft, spongy and have a richer flavor than cow’s milk.
Margarine is produced directly from vegetable oils. The first margarine products appeared in the 19th century, the original butter product was very primitive and not widely used because of its taste. By the end of the 20th century, the margarine production process was perfected in ensuring human health and mimicking the taste of margarine.
Margarine has a relatively complicated production process. After collecting oil from seeds, fruits containing oil (vegetable oil), people conduct testing and purify the oil to remove unwanted components. Then the oil is put into a modern machinery system to conduct a hydrogenation reaction, a process where hydrogen is added to liquid fat by a catalyst to turn it into a solid form. The product after this process is basically called butter, but to limit the bad fat (trans fat), when synthesizing margarine, many other synthesis reactions are needed to make the final product.