Fat after hydrogenation reaction has two forms, cis fat and trans fat according to the spatial structure. To put it simply, cis fat is similar to the average person with the body having an axis of symmetry, the right hand is symmetrical with the left hand, the right leg is symmetrical with the left leg. And trans fat (trans fat) is an “unusual” person, whose limbs are asymmetrical, the position of the right hand is the right foot or the place of the left hand is the left foot. It can be visualized as a leg and an arm above and a leg and arm below. Modern production process to remove trans fat to the maximum extent to ensure human health.

The composition of margarine is similar to margarine, consisting of 80% fat, the remaining 20% ​​is water, vitamins and other substances. The color of margarine is relatively yellow because the ingredient is mainly vegetable oil.

Margarine is divided into several types:

– Type using synthetic method (as above): produced from one or more oils mixed together. Used for cakes that use butter. Most cakes with margarine can be substituted with this, but the taste will be a little less delicious. So which ones are not affected? Those are cakes with butter as the base, mainly playing the role of creating fat and thickening for the cake, the flavor and taste is taken up by the fruit, jam or another ingredient. There are also some cakes that prioritize using margarine such as blueberry muffin…

– Butter extracted directly from fruit/seeds such as peanut butter (peanut butter), cocoa butter (cocoa butter): Used in cake recipes that are dominated by these types such as peanut cookies, cocoa cream…

– Also divided into mixed or non-skim milk, each will taste like margarine and margarine.

Margarine has the disadvantage that the melting point is lower than butter, so some cakes cannot be used. Margarine should not be used for frying because the percentage of water in butter is high, which can easily cause burns, moreover, we already have cooking oil. Many margarines have no flavor at all, so baking won’t yield the desired results. This can be clearly seen when using margarine with bread or making cakes, butter bread or butter cake…

As we all know, the oils of fruits and seeds all have their own scents such as peanut oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil… and some aromatic oils such as almond, vanilla (because of their fragrance, they are called essential oils). substances – essential oils). With those for the production of daily cooking oil or margarine, an anti-odor agent must be mixed so that consumers can use it without feeling uncomfortable. Therefore, whether it is butter or vegetable oil, the number of frying and frying times should be kept to a minimum.

Butters that contain a high amount of vegetable fat (99% or more), are completely fat or mixed with animal fat, they are classified as shortening.

It is a commonly used raw material in the food processing industry. From cakes, marshmallows, ice cream to packages of instant noodles…industrial production uses shortening because of its low cost, structure and state of the food to achieve the desired results of the manufacturer. Currently, shortening is also widely used in many families, it can be used to replace butter and cooking oil in many cakes, creating a new feeling and close to “out-of-store cakes”. The effect of shortening is to make it friable, spongy, soft and creates a stable structure for some cakes and is also used as a cream or filling. The amount of fat in shortening is not inferior to butter, but it has the effect of increasing the feeling of sweetness when eating the cake, the preservation time is longer, which is very meaningful when producing industrial cakes.

The shortening production process is similar to margarine, but no additives or other ingredients are added, so the characteristic color is white. The percentage of fat in shortening often reaches 100% and comes with preservatives. Common ingredients for shortening production are vegetable oil and animal fat (lard). The commonly used types are palm oil, coconut oil, sesame oil, peanut oil, cottonseed oil and lard (lard fat) because of its low odor nature. Shortening is usually a product of many types of vegetable oils mixed together or mixed with animal fat. In Vietnam, the familiar name of shortening is fat, there are many types in circulation, so it is important to pay attention, only using products of reputable and well-known brands (recommended to buy), because In addition to impurities, the amount of trans fat in poor quality fat is very high, greatly affecting health.

The types of cakes that can use shortening are pie, tart, cookies, cake, some types of cake with layers such as pastry or cookie cream. With these types, it should be noted that shortening only plays the role of pure fat, keeping moisture and fat, the flavor must be taken by other ingredients (for example, butter cake is delicious because of butter, so it is difficult to replace it with shortening. ), from here can be flexibly used if you want to replace the type of fat in the existing recipe. Usually in a recipe, when replacing butter with shortening, it should be about 18 to 20% less mass than the original number (similar to anhydrous butter).

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